Careers360 Logo
NEET Biology Syllabus 2024 PDF - Check Biology Reduced Syllabus Subject-Wise

Access premium articles, webinars, resources to make the best decisions for career, course, exams, scholarships, study abroad and much more with

Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Characteristics And Classification Of Gymnosperms - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 18, 2023 18:34 AM | #NEET

Quick Facts

  • Gymnosperms, Reproduction in gymnosperms, Classification of Gymnosperms is considered one of the most asked concept.

  • 60 Questions around this concept.

Solve by difficulty

Which of the following plants is monoecious?

Select the mismatch 

Cycas and adiantum resemble each other in having: 

Gymnosperms lack
 

Select the correct statement:

Apply to Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Allied & Life Science 2024

Begin a career in Medical and Allied Sciences. Admissions Open for

Select the correct statement:

Seed coat is not thin, membranous in:

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Allied & Life Science 2024

Admissions Open for multiple allied and health sciences programs across 5 campuses | Ranked #7 in India by NIRF, NAAC A++ Accredited

NEET College Predictor

Know possible Govt/Private MBBS/BDS Colleges based on your NEET rank

Conifers are adapted to tolerate extreme environmental conditions because of

Concepts Covered - 3

Gymnosperms
  • Gymnosperms are embryo forming, vascular tissue containing plants. 
  • These are usually evergreen trees, rarely shrubs and very rarely perennial herbs. Sequoia is one of the tallest trees.
  • Ginkgo is a living fossil.
  • The dominant stage in the life cycle is the sporophyte and divided into root, stem and leaf.
  •  The root system is usually a taproot system.
  •  Roots of some plants are associated with fungal mycelia and form Mycorrhizal roots (Pinus), while in others they are associated with Cyanobacteria like Nostoc and Anabaena as in Cycas. 
  • The stem of gymnosperms can be branched (Pinus, Cedrus) or unbranched (Cycas).
  • Leaves can be simple as in Ginkgo and Gnetum or Pinnately compound as in Cycas. 
  •  Leaves persist for a few years and they are well adapted to withstand extremes temperature, humidity and wind.
  • In conifers like Pinus, the needle-like leaves with sunken stomata and thick cuticle reduce the surface area to minimize water loss (xerophytic adaptation). 
  • Anatomically the stem has Eustele with conjoint, collateral and open vascular bundles. 
  • Xylem usually lacks vessels and companion cells are absent in phloem. 
  • Stem and root show secondary growth.
     
Reproduction in gymnosperms
  • Gymnosperms are heterosporous and produce both mega and microspores on the same plant (Monoecious - Pinus) or on different plants (Dioecious – Cycas). 
  • Microspores and megaspores are formed on microsporangia and megasporangia respectively, which in return are formed on microsporophylls and megasporophylls respectively.
  • The microsporophyll and megasporophyll aggregate and form cone-like structures Strobili. 
  • Megasporophylls possess integumented megasporangium known as ovules which bear female gametophyte.
  • Female gametophyte possess archegonia i.e. female sex organ.
  • Microspores include male gametophyte which produces only two male gametes or sperm. 
  • The pollen grains or microspores are liberated at more than 2-celled stage from microsporangium. 
  • Water is not required for transport of male gamete. A pollen tube is formed that delivers male gametes to archegonia. 
  • Fertilization produces a zygote which later turns into an embryo.
  • Endosperm in gymnosperms is formed before fertilization. It represents the haploid female gametophyte generation.
  • The seeds are naked i.e. they are not formed inside fruit as in angiosperms. 
     
Classification of Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms are divided into four groups:

1-Cycadopsida- Wood is manoxylic, Siphonogamous fertilization, male gametes are winged, they are commonly called cycads. E.g Cycas 
 
2-Coniferopsida- commonly called conifers, e.g. Pinus. Wood is pycnoxylic, small ephemeral cones formed in groups, large and perennial female cones, siphonogamous fertilization, male gametes non-motile. 
 
3-Ginkgopsida- represented by Ginkgo, also known as maidenhair tree. It is known as a living fossil. It is the only one living organism in this group, it has leathery and fan-shaped leaves, The veins are dichotomously branched, male gametes are motile and multiflagellate.
 
4-Gnetopsida- includes Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia. Vessels are present in secondary xylem, orthotropous ovules with long tubular micropyle are present,  resin canals absent.
 

Study it with Videos

Gymnosperms
Reproduction in gymnosperms
Classification of Gymnosperms

"Stay in the loop. Receive exam news, study resources, and expert advice!"

Get Answer to all your questions

Back to top