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Organic Chemistry - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 25, 2023 25:24 PM | #NEET

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Successive alkenes differ by

Concepts Covered - 2

Substrate and Reagent

Ions are generally not formed in the reactions of organic compounds. Molecules as such participate in the reaction. It is convenient to name one reagent as substrate and other as reagent. In general, a molecule whose carbon is involved in new bond formation is called substrate and the other one is called reagent. When carbon-carbon bond is formed, the choice of naming the reactants as substrate and reagent is arbitrary and depends on molecule under observation. Some examples include:

Homolytic and Heterolytic Cleavage

A covalent bond can get cleaved either by:

  • Heterolytic cleavage
  • Homolytic cleavage

Heterolytic cleavage
In heterolytic cleavage, the bond breaks in such a fashion that the shared pair of electrons remains with one of the fragments. After heterolysis, one atom has a sextet electronic structure and a positive charge and the other, a valence octet with at least one lone pair and a negative charge. Thus, heterolytic cleavage of bromomethane will give CH3+ and Br– as shown below.

Homolytic cleavage
In homolytic cleavage, one of the electrons of the shared pair in a covalent bond goes with each of the bonded atoms. Thus, in homolytic cleavage, the movement of a single electron takes place instead of an electron pair. The single electron movement is shown by ‘half-headed’ curved arrow. Such cleavage results in the formation of neutral species (atom or group) which contains an unpaired electron. These species are called free radicals. A homolytic cleavage can be shown as below:

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Substrate and Reagent
Homolytic and Heterolytic Cleavage

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Books

Reference Books

Substrate and Reagent

Chemistry Part II Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 350

Line : 24

Homolytic and Heterolytic Cleavage

Chemistry Part II Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 349

Line : 8

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