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Hybridisation - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 25, 2023 25:23 PM | #NEET

Quick Facts

  • How to Find Hybridisation is considered one the most difficult concept.

  • Hybridisation is considered one of the most asked concept.

  • 75 Questions around this concept.

Solve by difficulty

The hybridization involved in complex \left [ Ni \left ( CN \right )_{4} \right ]^{2-}is.(At.No.Ni=28)

Identify the wrongly matched pair.

 

Considering the state of hybridization of carbon atoms, find out the molecule among the following which is linear?

 

The species, having bond angles of 120° is :

Which one of the following species has plane triangular shape?

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Which one of the following pairs is isostructural (i.e. having the same shape and hybridization)?

The species in which the N atom is in a state of sp hybridization is

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Which one of the following has the regular tetrahedral structure?

(Atomic no. B = 5, S = 16, Ni = 28, Xe = 54)

The correct sequence of decreasing number of π-bonds in the structures of H2SO3, H2SO4 and H2S2O7 is :

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Concepts Covered - 2

Hybridisation

When atoms are bound together in a molecule, the individual atomic orbitals combine to produce new forms of orbitals that are same in energy and have same size and shape. This process of combining of atomic orbitals is called hybridization and is mathematically accomplished by the linear combination of atomic orbitals, LCAO. The new orbitals that result are called hybrid orbitals. 

For example, the valence orbitals in an isolated oxygen atom are a 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals. But the valence orbitals in an oxygen atom in a water molecule differ; they consist of four equivalent hybrid orbitals that point approximately toward the corners of a tetrahedron as shown in the figure given below. Consequently, the overlap of the O and H orbitals should result in a tetrahedral bond angle (109.5°) but the real bond angle in water molecule is 104.5°, this is because of the presence of the lone pairs of electrons in two of the hybrid orbitals.Two diagrams are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Diagram a shows two peanut-shaped orbitals lying in a tetrahedral arrangement around the letter “O.” Diagram b shows the same two orbitals, but they now overlap to the top and to the left with two spherical orbitals, each labeled “H.” A pair of electrons occupies each lobe of the peanut-shaped orbitals.

The salient features and conditions for hybridization:

  1. Hybrid orbitals do not exist in isolated atoms. They are formed only in covalently bonded atoms.

  2. Hybrid orbitals have shapes and orientations that are very different from those of the atomic orbitals in isolated atoms.

  3. A set of hybrid orbitals is generated by combining atomic orbitals. The number of hybrid orbitals in a set is equal to the number of atomic orbitals that were combined to produce the set.

  4. All orbitals in a set of hybrid orbitals are equivalent in shape and energy.

  5. The type of hybrid orbitals formed in a bonded atom depends on its electron-pair geometry as predicted by the VSEPR theory.

  6. Hybrid orbitals overlap to form σ bonds. Unhybridized orbitals overlap to form π bonds.

Types of Hybridisation

The hybridisation can be of several types depending on the number of hybrid orbitals involved in the formation of molecules. The table given below describes all types of hybridisation and their geometries.

A table is shown that is composed of five columns and six rows. The header row contains the phrases, “Regions of electron density,” “Arrangement,” (which has two columns below it), and “Hybridization,” (which has two columns below it). The first column contains the numbers “2,” “3,” “4,” “5,” and “6.” The second column contains images of a line, a triangle, a three sided pyramid, a trigonal bipyramid, and an eight-faced ocatahedron. The third column contains the terms, “Linear,” “Trigonal planar,” “Tetrahedral,” “Trigonal bipyramidal,” and “Octahedral.” The fourth column contains the terms “s p,” “s p superscript 2,” “s p superscript 3,” “s p superscript 3 d,” and “s p superscript 3 d superscript 2.” The last column contains drawings of the molecules beginning with a peanut-shaped structure marked with an angle of “180 degrees.” The second structure is made up of three equal-sized, rounded structures connected at one point with an angle of “120 degrees,” while the third structure is a three-dimensional arrangement of four equal-sized, rounded structures labeled as “109.5 degrees.” The fourth structure is made up of five equal-sized, rounded structures connected at “120 and 90 degrees,” while the fifth structure has six equal-sized, rounded structures connected at “90 degrees.”

How to Find Hybridisation

How to find Hybridisation

The hybridisation depends upon sigma bonds and lone pair of electrons. 

Thus, 

Hybridisation = Number of sigma bonds + Number of lone pairs present on central atom

For example, hybridisation for NH3 is sp3 and its molecular geometry is tetrahedral.

NH3 has 3 sigma bonds and 1 lone pair, thus hybridisation for NH3:

3 sigma bonds + 1 lone pair = 4

Thus hybridisation for NH3 is sp3 and its geometry is tetrahedral.

 

sp Hybridization

This hybridization process involves mixing of the valence s orbital with one of the valence p orbitals to yield two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals that are oriented in a linear geometry as shown in the figure. The number of atomic orbitals combined always equals the number of hybrid orbitals formed. The p orbital is one orbital that can hold up to two electrons. The sp set is two equivalent orbitals that point 180° from each other. The two electrons that were originally in the s orbital are now distributed to the two sp orbitals, which are half filled. 

A series of three diagrams connected by a right-facing arrow that is labeled, “Hybridization,” and a downward-facing arrow labeled, “Gives a linear arrangement,” are shown. The first diagram shows a blue spherical orbital and a red, peanut-shaped orbital, each placed on an X, Y, Z axis system. The second diagram shows the same two orbitals, but they are now purple and have one enlarged lobe and one smaller lobe. Each lies along the x-axis in the drawing. The third diagram shows the same two orbitals, but their smaller lobes now overlap along the x-axis while their larger lobes are located at and labeled as “180 degrees” from one another.

 

sp2 Hybridization

When 1 s-orbital and 2 p-orbitals are involved in the molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as sp2 hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals arrange themselves at an angle of 1200 as shown in the figure.

This shows a series of three diagrams with one on the left connected to one on the right by a right-facing arrow that is labeled, “Hybridization.” Below the one on the right is a downward-facing arrow labeled, “Gives a trigonal planar arrangement,” connecting to the last diagram. The first diagram shows a blue spherical orbital labeled “S” and then two red and blue, peanut-shaped orbitals, each placed on an X, Y, Z axis system, labeled “P subscript x” and “P subscript y.” The two red and blue orbitals are located on the x and z axes, respectively. The second diagram shows the three orbitals again on an X, Y, Z axis system, but they are yellow and have one enlarged lobe and one smaller lobe. Each lies in a different axis in the drawing. The third diagram shows the same three orbitals, but their smaller lobes now overlap while their larger lobes are located at and labeled as “120 degrees” from one another.

 

sp3 Hybridization

When 1 s-orbital and 3 p-orbitals are involved in the molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as sp3 hybrid orbitals. The bond angle between these hybrid orbitals is 1090 as shown in the figure.

A series of three diagrams connected by a right-facing arrow that is labeled, “Hybridization,” and a downward-facing arrow labeled, “Gives a tetrahedral arrangement,” are shown. The first diagram shows a blue spherical orbital and three red, peanut-shaped orbitals, each placed on an x, y, z axis system. The three red orbitals are located on the x , y and z axes, respectively. The second diagram shows the same four orbitals, but they are now purple and have one enlarged lobe and one smaller lobe. Each lies in a different axis in the drawing. The third diagram shows the same four orbitals, but their smaller lobes now overlap to form a tetrahedral structure.

 

sp3d Hybridisation

When 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals and 1 d-orbital are involved in the molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as sp3d hybrid orbitals. There are two kinds of bonds formed for sp3d hybridisation, i.e, 2 axial bonds and 3 equatorial bonds. The angle between the axial bond and the equatorial plane is 900 while the bond angle between the equatorial bonds is 1200 as shown in the figure given below:

Two images are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Image a depicts a ball-and-stick model in a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement. Image b depicts the hybrid orbitals in the same arrangement and each is labeled, “s p superscript three d.”

 

sp3d2 Hybridization

When 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals and 2 d-orbitals are involved in the molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as sp3d2 hybrid orbitals. There are two kinds of bonds formed for sp3d2 hybridisation, i.e, 2 axial bonds and 4 equatorial bonds. The angle between the axial bond and the equatorial plane is 900 while the bond angle between the equatorial bonds is 900 as shown in the figure given below:

Two images are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Image a depicts a ball-and-stick model in an octahedral arrangement. Image b depicts the hybrid orbitals in the same arrangement and each is labeled, “s p superscript three d superscript two.”



 

d2sp3 hybridisation

When 2 d-orbital, 1 s-orbital and 3 p-orbitals are involved in the molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as d2sp3 hybrid orbitals. There are two kinds of bonds formed for sp3d2 hybridisation, i.e, 2 axial bonds and 4 equatorial bonds. The angle between the axial bond and the equatorial plane is 900 while the bond angle between the equatorial bonds is 900 as shown in the figure given below:

 

Two images are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Image a depicts a ball-and-stick model in an octahedral arrangement. Image b depicts the hybrid orbitals in the same arrangement and each is labeled, “s p superscript three d superscript two.”

sp3d3 hybridization

When 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals and 3 d-orbitals are involved in molecule formation then the equivalent set of orbitals are known as sp3d3 hybrid orbitals. The sp3d3 hybridization has a pentagonal bipyramidal geometry i.e., five bonds in a plane, one bond above the plane and one below it. 

 

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Hybridisation

Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 120

Line : 35

How to Find Hybridisation

Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 121

Line : 15

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