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Chemical Bonding - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 25, 2023 25:23 PM | #NEET

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  • 14 Questions around this concept.

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Assertion: According to the electronic theory of chemical bonding, atoms combine to attain a stable electron configuration.

Reasoning: The combination of atoms can be understood through the sharing or transfer of electrons to achieve a stable octet or duet configuration.

Assertion: In covalent bonding, the sharing of electrons between atoms results in the formation of a stable molecule.

Reasoning: Covalent bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to anothe

Which of the following statements is true about electronic theory of chemical bonding?

Concepts Covered - 2

Introduction

From the small number of elements, there are millions of known compounds, and many more are discovered daily. This is because of the fact that there are so many possible ways in which atoms can combine to form molecules. Atoms combine with each other on the basis of electrons they have. In this universe, most of the substances are found in cluster forms or aggregates of atoms. These types of aggregation, in which atoms are held together and which is electrically neutral is called a molecule. The molecules are made of two or more atoms joined together by some force acting between them. This force acting between them the atoms is known as a chemical bond. Thus, a chemical bond is defined as a force that acts between two or more atoms to hold them together as a stable molecule or as a force that holds a group of two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit. For example, in water, the fundamental unit is the H-O-H molecule, which is described as being held together by the two O-H bonds.

 

Cause of Chemical Combination

Atoms combine with each other on the basis of the following reasons:

(i) Decrease in energy: All systems in the universe tend to lose potential energy and achieve more stability. It is an observed fact that a bonded state is more stable than unbonded state because bonded state has lower potential energy than unbonded state. Thus when two atoms approach each other, they combine only under the condition that there is a decrease in potential energy. When two atoms approach each other, new kinds of forces of

attraction and repulsion starts acting. These forces are:

  1. Electrons and nuclei attract each other: Attractive forces are always energetically favourable, thus an electron attracted to a nucleus is of lower energy and therefore more stable than a free electron. 

  2. Electrons repel each other: Because of this repulsion, the energy is raised and the stability reduces.

  3. Nuclei repel each other: The repulsion exists between the nuclei also and this also reduces the stability.

Among all these above forces, If the net result is the attraction, then the total potential energy of the system decreases and a chemical bond formation takes place. No chemical bonding is possible if the net result is repulsion.

(ii) Lewis Octet Rule: The atoms of all elements during the bond formation try to attain the stable noble gas configuration, i.e., they try to obtain either 2 electrons (when only one energy shell) or 8 electrons in their outermost energy level which is of maximum stability and hence of minimum energy. Thus, the tendency of atoms to achieve eight electrons in their outermost shell is known as Lewis octet rule. The octet rule is the basis of the electronic theory of valency. All the noble gases like helium, neon, etc. are not active towards the bond formation because of their already filled outermost shell, in other words, their octet is already complete and thus these elements do not need to combine with other elements to complete its octet.

 

Lewis symbol of elements

For explaining the formation of bonds, the lewis symbol representation of atoms is necessary. To write Lewis symbol for an element, we write down its symbol surrounded by a number of dots that are equal to the number of valence electrons. Paired and unpaired valence electrons are also indicated. The Lewis symbols for some of the elements like Chlorine, Aluminium, and Argon are mentioned below:

Theory of chemical bonding

A type of bonding that results from the mutual attraction of atoms for a shared pair of electrons. are known as covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed between two atoms when both have similar tendencies to attract electrons to themselves. For example, two hydrogen atoms bond covalently to form an H2 molecule; each hydrogen atom in the H2 molecule has two electrons stabilizing it, giving each atom the same number of valence electrons as the noble gas He. Compounds that contain covalent bonds exhibit different physical properties than ionic compounds. Because the attraction between molecules, which are electrically neutral, is weaker than that between electrically charged ions, covalent compounds generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds. In fact, many covalent compounds are liquids or gases at room temperature, and, in their solid states, they are typically much softer than ionic solids. Furthermore, whereas ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity when dissolved in water, most covalent compounds are insoluble in water; since they are electrically neutral, they are poor conductors of electricity in any state.

 

Formation of Covalent Bonds

Nonmetal atoms frequently form covalent bonds with other nonmetal atoms. For example, the hydrogen molecule, H2, contains a covalent bond between its two hydrogen atoms. The figure given below shows the explanation of this bond. Starting on the far right, we have two separate hydrogen atoms with a particular potential energy, indicated by the red line. Along the x-axis is the distance between the two atoms. As the two atoms approach each other their valence orbitals (1s) begin to overlap. The single electrons on each hydrogen atom then interact with both atomic nuclei, occupying the space around both atoms. The strong attraction of each shared electron to both nuclei stabilizes the system, and the potential energy decreases as the bond distance decreases. If the atoms continue to approach each other, the positive charges in the two nuclei begin to repel each other, and the potential energy increases. The bond length is determined by the distance at which the lowest potential energy is achieved.

A graph is shown with the x-axis labeled, “Internuclear distance ( p m )” while the y-axis is labeled, “Energy ( J ).” One value, “0,” is labeled midway up the y-axis and two values: “0” at the far left and “0.74” to the left, are labeled on the x-axis. The point “0.74” is labeled, “H bond H distance.” A line is graphed that begins near the top of the y-axis and to the far left on the x-axis and drops steeply to a point labeled, “negative 7.24 times 10 superscript negative 19 J” on the y-axis and 0.74 on the x-axis. This low point on the graph corresponds to a drawing of two spheres that overlap considerably. The line then rises to zero on the y-axis and levels out. The point where it almost reaches zero corresponds to two spheres that overlap slightly. The line at zero on the y-axis corresponds to two spheres that are far from one another.

The potential energy of two separate hydrogen atoms (right) decreases as they approach each other, and the single electrons on each atom are shared to form a covalent bond. The bond length is the internuclear distance at which the lowest potential energy is achieved.

 

Coordinate Bonds

It is a special type of covalent bond in which both the shared electrons are contributed by one atom only. Such a bond is also known as dative bond. A coordinate or a dative bond is established between two such types of atoms, out of which one has a complete octet and while the other is short of a pair of electrons. This bond is represented by “→”.

The atom which donates the electron pair is called the donor while the atom which accepts the electron pair is called acceptor. The compounds in which the coordinate bond exist are known as complex or coordination compounds. Some example include [Pt(en)2]CO3, [Ni(H2O)6]Cl2, etc.

 

Characteristics of Coordination Compounds

The main properties of the coordination compounds are mentioned below:

  • Melting and boiling points: The melting and boiling points of these compounds are higher than purely covalent compounds but lower than purely ionic compounds.

  • Solubility: These compounds are sparingly soluble in polar solvents like water but readily soluble in non-polar solvents.

  • Stability: The stability of these compounds are similar to the covalent compounds.

  • Conductivity: Like covalent compounds, these are also bad conductors of electricity.

  • Dielectric constant: The compounds containing coordinate bond have high values of the dielectric constants.

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Introduction
Theory of chemical bonding

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Reference Books

Introduction

Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 101

Line : 2

Theory of chemical bonding

Chemistry Part I Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 102

Line : 25

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