Careers360 Logo
NEET 2024 Latest News Updates - Admit Card, City Intimation, Revised Syllabus

Access premium articles, webinars, resources to make the best decisions for career, course, exams, scholarships, study abroad and much more with

Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Group 14 Elements (Carbon Family) - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 25, 2023 25:24 PM | #NEET

Quick Facts

  • Chemical Properties - 1 is considered one the most difficult concept.

  • Physical Properties - 2 is considered one of the most asked concept.

  • 52 Questions around this concept.

Solve by difficulty

Among the following which one is a wrong statement?

 Excited hydrogen atom emits light in the ultraviolet region at 2.47 x 1015 Hz. With this frequency, the energy of a single photon is :

(h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js)

Concepts Covered - 5

Group 14(Carbon Family) - Physical Properties - 1

Electronic Configuration
The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np2. The inner core of the electronic configuration of elements in this group also differs.

Covalent Radius
There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from C to Si, thereafter from Si to Pb a small increase in radius is observed. This is due to the presence of completely filled d and f orbitals in heavier members.

Ionization Enthalpy
The first ionization enthalpy of group 14 members is higher than the corresponding members of group 13. The influence of inner core electrons is visible here also. In general, the ionisation enthalpy decreases down the group. The small decrease in ∆iH from Si to Ge to Sn and slight increase in ∆iH from Sn to Pb is the consequence of poor shielding effect of intervening d and orbitals and increase in size of the atom.

Due to small size, the elements of this group are slightly more electronegative than group 13 elements. The electronegativity values for elements from Si to Pb are almost the same.

Physical Properties - 2

The ability of an element to exist in more than one physical form is called allotropy. All the elements of this group except Pb exhibit allotropy. Carbon has three allotropes i.e, diamond, graphite and fullerene

All the elements of this group show tetravalency as they have 4 electrons in their valence shell.

Atomic and Ionic radii
As we move down the group, the radius of these elements increases.

Multiple Bonding
Carbon forms p\pi-p\pi bonding with itself and with S, N and O. While the other elements of this group form p\pi-d\pi bonding as they have a vacant d-orbital while carbon does not have.

Chemical Properties - 1


  • All the members of this group form covalent hydrides.
  • Hydrides of carbon are called hydrocarbon.
  • Hydrides of Si and Ge are known as silanes and germanes.
  • Thermal stability of hydrides decreases down the group.
  • Reducing character increases down the group.
Chemical Properties - 2

These elements can form halides of formula MX2 and MX(where X = F, Cl, Br, I). Except carbon, all other members react directly with halogen under a suitable condition to make halides. Most of the MX4 are covalent in nature. The central metal atom in these halides undergoes sphybridisation and the molecule is tetrahedral in shape. Exceptions are SnF4 and PbF4, which are ionic in nature. PbI4 does not exist because Pb—I bond initially formed during the reaction does not release enough energy to unpair 6selectrons and excite one of them to higher orbital to have four unpaired electrons around lead atom. Heavier members Ge to Pb are able to make halides of formula MX2. Stability of dihalides increases down the group. Considering the thermal and chemical stability, GeX4 is more stable than GeX2, whereas PbX2 is more than PbX4. Except CCl4, other tetrachlorides are easily hydrolysed by water because the central atom can accommodate the lone pair of electrons from oxygen atom of water molecule in d orbital.

Chemical Properties - 3

All members when heated in oxygen form oxides. There are mainly two types of oxides, i.e., monoxide and dioxide of formula MO and MO2 respectively. SiO only exists at high temperature. Oxides in higher oxidation states of elements are generally more acidic than those in lower oxidation states. The dioxides — CO2, SiO2 and GeO2 are acidic, whereas SnOand PbO2 are amphoteric in nature. Among monoxides, CO is neutral, GeO is distinctly acidic whereas SnO and PbO are amphoteric.

Study it with Videos

Group 14(Carbon Family) - Physical Properties - 1
Physical Properties - 2
Chemical Properties - 1

"Stay in the loop. Receive exam news, study resources, and expert advice!"


Reference Books

Group 14(Carbon Family) - Physical Properties - 1

Chemistry Part II Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 322

Line : 20

Physical Properties - 2

Chemistry Part II Textbook for Class XI

Page No. : 322

Line : 20

E-books & Sample Papers

Get Answer to all your questions

Back to top