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Artificial Methods of Vegetative Propagation in Plants - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 18, 2023 18:34 AM | #NEET

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Artificial Methods of Vegetative Propagation
  • In some plants, where vegetative reproduction by natural means is difficult to occur, special techniques can be used.
  • The plant cells are more totipotent than animal cells. 
  • So they can be made to reproduce vegetatively. 
  • Thus all the techniques or methods which are carried out by human beings to produce plants vegetatively, are called artificial methods. 

1. Cutting:

  • It is a simple method, in which a suitable part of stem or root is cut.
  • It is planted in the soil, along with some nutrients. 
  • This cut part soon develops new roots and develops into a new plant.
  • Certain root promoting chemicals like IBA, NAA are used.
  • Root cuttings are commonly used in plants like lemon, tamarind, Blackberry, and raspberry, etc. 
  • Stem cuttings are very common in plants like Rose, Croton, Sugarcane, Tapioca, China rose, Bougainvillea, Lemon, Coffee, and Grape, etc.
  • Leaf cuttings are also used to produce new offspring, in plants like Sansevieria.

2. Layering:

  • In this method, a twig (branch) of a plant is bent down, below the level of the soil. This bent part is called a layer.
  • A small incision is made in this layer (bent portion). Now the portion is covered with soil. Moisture is given at regular intervals.
  • Soon this covered portion develops new roots and becomes separated (or can be cut) from the main body, giving rise to the new plant. 
  • This plant then can be shifted to some new location.
  • Layering is common in plants like-jasmine, Strawberry, Grapevine, and Cherry, etc.
  • In mound layering, the shoot is cut and the left part is covered with soil. It develops a number of shoots. 
  • The gootee or air layering involves the rooting of aerial stems while attached to the parent plant.
  • The formation of adventitious roots during air layering is induced by various stem treatments. 
  • These generally involve the girdling or wounding of a small part of the stem, resulting in the interruption of the downward movement of organic materials such as carbohydrates, auxin and other growth factors from the leaves and shoot tips. 
  • These materials accumulate close to the treated area and induce rooting.

3. Grafting:

  • It is the technique of joining parts of two different plants to form a composite plant.
  • It can be done efficiently in those plants, which are closely related and have vascular cambium.
  • One plant, which has a strong root system, is selected as stock or stump (basal part).
  • The branch of the other plant (which is to be grafted) is selected as the scion. 
  • Scion is usually selected from plants that have desired superior characters.
  • Grafting is carried out commonly in plants like Mango, Guava, Apple, Rubber plant, Citrus, and Pear, etc.
     

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