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Fertilization Events in Flowering Plants - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Sep 18, 2023 18:34 AM | #NEET

Concepts Covered - 0

Fertilization
  • The most vital event of sexual reproduction is the fusion of gametes. 
  • This process called syngamy results in the formation of a diploid zygote. 
  • The term fertilization is also often used for this process. 
  • In most aquatic organisms, such as a majority of algae and fishes as well as amphibians, syngamy occurs in the external medium (water), i.e., outside the body of the organism.
  • This type of gametic fusion is called external fertilization.
  • Organisms exhibiting external fertilization show great synchrony between the sexes and release a large number of gametes into the surrounding medium (water) in order to enhance the chances of syngamy. 
  • This happens in the bony fishes and frogs where a large number of offspring are produced. 
  • A major disadvantage is that the offspring are extremely vulnerable to predators threatening their survival up to adulthood.
  • In many terrestrial organisms, belonging to fungi, higher animals such as reptiles, birds, mammals and in a majority of plants (bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms), syngamy occurs inside the body of the organism, hence the process is called internal fertilization.
  • In all these organisms, the egg is formed inside the female body where they fuse with the male gamete. 
  • In organisms exhibiting internal fertilization, the male gamete is motile and has to reach the egg in order to fuse with it.
  • In these even though the number of sperm produced is very large, there is a significant reduction in the number of eggs produced. 
  • In seed plants, however, the non-motile male gametes are carried to female gamete by pollen tubes.
     

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