Medical Degrees
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Medical Degrees – The medical education is one of most rapid and reputed field in the country. Doctors have a special place in our society. A medical degree is awarded for studies in the fields associated with medicine and (or) surgery. Usually, candidates can pursue their medical education after Class 12 (Primary Medical Qualification) or after the completion of their undergraduate course (Higher Medical Degrees).

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Despite the availability of medical courses, most of the students come across a common question that which are the top medical degrees to pursue in India? And the most general answer to this question is MBBS after Class 12 and MD/MS after pursuing graduation. Since NEET, AIIMS, JIPMER (for MBBS and MD/MS) and PGIMER (postgraduate) exam are being conducted for admission to UG as well as PG medical degrees. Meanwhile, there are other medical degrees which can be opted as a career by aspirants.

This article by Careers360 provides a complete list of medical degrees which can be obtained by medical students. This will help them to know the wide range of career options along with the opportunities.


Undergraduate (Primary) Medical Degrees in India

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) is the most predominant and competitive course in India, offering a total of 66,620 seats across India, as revealed by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) in Lok Sabha on March 23, 2018. Around 13 lakh registrations are received annually for admission to these seats. NEET, AIIMS MBBS and JIPMER MBBS is conducted for admission to UG medical course.

Among these 13 lakh students, around 8 lakhs eligible candidates get admission in medical colleges, while being disappointed prepare for the next year. Such candidates can check the list of other UG medical courses after 12th as their career option. We have divided the medical courses in the following categories:


Undergraduate medical degrees with entrance exam

  • MBBS – Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

  • BDS – Bachelor of Dental Surgery

  • BAMS – Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery

  • BUMS – Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery

  • BHMS – Bachelor of Homeopathy Medicine and Surgery

UG medical courses without entrance exam

There are numerous medical courses which are offered without NEET. The list of such medical degrees are mentioned below.

  • Bachelor of Occupational Therapy

  • Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology

  • Bachelor of Technology in Biomedical Engineering

  • Bachelor of Science in Microbiology (Non-Clinical)

Postgraduate Medical Degrees in India

After the completion of 5 years of medical degree, most of the candidates are puzzled over the uncertainty of pursuing Masters. And MD/MS comes out to be the simplest outcome of the question. Around 35,935 seats across India are offered for admission to postgraduate medical degrees. Admission to this PG courses will be granted on the basis of scores obtained in NEET PG, JIPMER PG, AIIMS PG and PGIMER entrance examination.

These are the graduate medical degrees that a candidate would need to specialize in certain areas. Once awarded with one of the Master's medical degree, MBBS doctors can work as a Physician or Doctors in Clinical Care, Education or Research. Once appeared and qualified in any postgraduate medical entrance examination, aspirants can pursue the following postgraduate medical courses from any institute across India.

  • Doctor of Medicine (MD)

  • Masters of Surgery (MS)

  • Diplomate of National Board (DNB)

Under these three postgraduate medical degrees, aspirants need to choose a specialization in any of the following speciality courses:


Specialities in PG medical degrees 

MD Specialty

MS Specialty

DNB Specialty


Ear, Nose and Throat



General Surgery


Community Health






Family Medicine

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Emergency Medicine

Forensic Medicine

Dermatology, Venerology and Leprosy

Family Medicine

General Medicine


Field Epidemiology



Forensic Medicine



General Medicine

Palliative Medicine


General Surgery



Health Administration



Immunohematology and transfusion medicine

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation


Maternal and Child Health




Preventive and Social Medicine


Nuclear Medicine



Obstetric and Gynecology






Orthopedic Surgery

Tuberculosis and Respiratory diseases


Oto-Rhino Laryngology

Emergency and Critical care



Nuclear Medicine



Transfusion Medicine



Skin and Vereral diseases


Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Tropical Medicine














Respiratory diseases



Rural Surgery



Social and Preventive Medicine

Following is the brief introduction of postgraduate medical degrees, in which an MBBS aspirant can specialize in.


Eligibility Criteria 

In order to be eligible for these national level entrance examination, aspirants must possess:

  • MBBS degree or MBBS provisional pass certificate offered by the concerned University/college

  • Completed or likely to complete 12 months rotatory internship

  • Provisional or permanent registration certificate issued by Medical Council of India (MCI) or State Medical Council (SMC)

Doctor of Medicine (MD)

MD occurred form the Latin word Medicinae Doctor, is a medical degree which denotes as a first professional graduate degree awarded after the initial graduation form the medical school/institute/university/college.

After the years of study and completion of examination, in a pre-clinical or clinical subjects of a non-surgical nature, the candidates receives MD degree. The specialty subjects which candidates can choose for specialization is mentioned in the table above.


Most recommended branches under Doctor of Medicine (MD) medical degree

General Medicine – Internal Medicine commonly known as General Medicine is a specialty in medical field dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine is also known as Internists or Physicians. These Internists are skilled in management of patients who have multi-system disease process. The internists or physicians care for the hospitalized and ambulatory patients and also plays an important role in teaching and research.

Anatomy – Anatomy is the very branch of medical science which deals with the study of the structure of living beings along with the entire system, organs and tissues. The discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy and macroscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy or Gross Anatomy is the examination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight, while the Microscopic anatomy involves the use of instruments in the study of tissues and various structures and also the study of cells.

Pediatrics – Paediatrics also spelled as Pediatrics is the branch of medicine the involves the medical care of infants, children and adolescents. A medical doctor who specializes in this arena is known as pediatrician or paediatrician. Pediatricians works either in hospitals, particularly those in its sub-specialties such as neonatology or works as a primary care physicians. The word Pediatrics means ‘healer of children’ which is derived from the Greek word pais (child) iatros (doctor, healer).


Master of Surgery (MS)

The Masters of Surgery (Latin name Magister Chirurgiae) is an advanced qualification in surgery. The qualification was designed to be awarded as a higher degree to the Bachelor of Surgery degree.

In a clinical subject of a surgical nature, a candidate receives the equivalent medical degree of MS. The specializations under the Masters of Surgery degree are mentioned in the table above.


Most recommended branches under Masters of Surgery (MS) medical degree

General Surgery – The General Surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including the stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, appendix and bile ducts. They also deals with the treatment of breasts, skin, soft tissue, trauma, peripheral vascular surgery and hernias and perform endoscopic procedure such as gastroscopy and colonoscopy.


Orthopedics – Orthopedic Surgery aka Orthopedics is the branch of surgery dealing with the conditions involving in human musculoskeletal system. A person specialized in this arena is known as Orthopedic Surgeon. The surgeons use both surgical and non-surgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine disease, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumours and congential disorders.


Obstetrics and Gynaecology – Obstetrics and Gynecology is a medical speicalty the compasses two sub-specialties – Obstetrics, which deals in pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period and gynaecology dealing with the health of female reproductive system such as vagina, uterus, breasts and ovaries. Postgraduate training programmes of bothy the specialties are usually combined, preparing the practitioner of obstetrician-gynaecologists to adept both at the care of female reproductive system and the management of pregnancy.


Diplomate of National Board (DNB)

A second alternative qualification termed DNB (Diplomate of National Board) is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. To pursue DNB courses, aspirants need to appear for the entrance examination conducted by National Board of Examinations (NBE). The duration of the course is 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. These post-MBBS residency programmes is available in the above-mentioned specialties. The holders of DNB are eligible to be considered for specialist’s post/faculty in any hospital including a training/teaching institution or a teaching post as a faculty member.


Super Specialty Medical Degree in India

After completion of postgraduate medical degree in one specialization, a doctor will be considered as a specialist. Super Specialty medical degree is the degree awarded to the postgraduate medical specialists after completing 3 years of specialization in an opted specialty. Only candidates who have completed their postgraduate medical degree (MD/MS/DNB) will be considered eligible for admission to pursue Super specialty degree, provided they must qualify the entrance examination such as NEET SS, AIIMS DM/M.Ch, JIPMER DM/M.Ch/Fellowship, DNBCET SS among others.

  • Super Specialty degree in medical is also known as D.M.

  • Super Specialty degree in surgery is also known as M.Ch

The most recommended post-doctoral courses available in the following super specialties (DM and M.Ch) are mentioned below.


Specialties in Post-Doctoral medical degrees






Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery


Gastrointestinal Surgery


Obstetrics and Gyaecology



Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care

Neuro Surgery


Pediatric Surgery


Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Medicine and Microbiology

Surgical Oncology


Surgery Trauma Centre



Nureo-Anaesthesiology and Critical Care




Onco-Anesthesiology and Palliative Medicine




Pulmonary and Sleep disorders


Obstetrics and Gynecology


Nuclear Medicine




Candidates can check the brief introduction to the super specialty medical degrees which are most recommended by postgraduate medical aspirants.


Eligibility Criteria

In order to be considered for admission to super specialty courses, aspirants need to fulfill certain eligibility criteria, which includes:

  • Candidates must possess a recognized postgraduate degree (MD/MS/DNB) or provisional pass certificate by the college/university

  • MCI or SMC registrations is mandatory and its documentary proof should be furnished

Endocrinology – Endocrinology comprised from endocrine, is a branch of Biology and Medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases and its specific secretions known as hormones. The medical specialty of endocrinology involves the diagnostic evaluation of a wide variety of symptoms and variations. This super specialty includes caring for the person as well as the disease. Most endocrine disorders are chronic ones which needs longtime care. Some of the most common as diabetes, metabolic syndrome etc.


Urology – Genitourinary surgery also known as Urology, is branch of medicine that focuses on the surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive system. Urologists undergo a postgraduate surgical training period of five years with 12 months rotatory internship and 36 months should be completed in Clinical Urology.


Neurosurgery – Neurological Surgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any part of the nervous systems including brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.


In conclusion, candidates can opt for many other options in the field of medicine. Only the dedication and right decision is what required the most.  

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